Notes On Major Changes In ASME Section IX: 2023 Edition

A new edition of ASME Section IX is published every two years. The most recent one was published in July 2023, and becomes effective from January 1, 2024. This article discusses the main changes that have been introduced in the 2023 edition of ASME Section IX. Changes in Article I: General Requirements The following are … Read more

Practice Case 16 – WPS For Welds With Buttering

Consider the following questions asked in the interpretation IX-16-48. ‘Background: Company A qualified a WPS to join an unlisted base metal (similar to P-Number 5A Group 1) to itself in accordance with QW-283 by buttering both groove faces using a filler metal that does not conform to an AWS classification, but is identified on the … Read more

Practice Case 15 – Welds With Buttering

Consider the following questions asked in the interpretation IX-16-3. “Background: Company A qualified a WPS joining a P-Number 5A material to itself in accordance with QW-283 by buttering both groove faces using a filler metal that does not conform to an AWS classification but is identified on the PQR by trade name. The buttered ends … Read more

Procedure Qualification For Welds With Buttering

Buttering is a concept that is widely used in welding field. Buttering is the weld metal deposited on the surface of one or both parts to be joined. This deposit is done with a specific purpose in mind, and the purpose can be different under different situations. In this article we shall see various purposes … Read more

P-Number As Per ASME Section IX

When a PQR has been qualified with base metals of a certain P-Number (or a combination of P-Numbers), that PQR can be used in production for joining base metals of only certain P-numbers. Which P-Numbers are those? Where is this subject addressed in Section IX? This article answers these questions. The article begins with explaining … Read more

How to Write a Welder Performance Qualification Record

In this article I have discussed how to write a WPQR – short for Welder Performance Qualification Record. This discussion is in reference to Section IX of ASME BPVC. A WPQR is a record of actual events that occurred during a welder’s performance qualification in accordance with ASME Section IX. Below is the suggested format … Read more

How to Buy Nuclear Quality Welding Consumables

I have been procuring welding consumables for Section III equipment for more than a decade. Section III pertains to nuclear facility components. What should one keep in mind when procuring welding consumables for Section III equipment? How are the requirements any different from welding consumables for fossil boilers or any other pressure equipment? A raw … Read more

Essential Variables for WPS Qualification as per ASME Section IX

Article II of ASME Section IX deals with welding procedure qualifications. Under QW-250 of Article II are contained a number of tables, titled QW-252 to QW-267. Each table is dedicated to a process such as SMAW, SAW, GTAW, and so on. These tables contain a listing of essential variables, supplementary essential variables and non-essential variables … Read more

Supervision & Control of Qualifications to Section IX

Section IX of ASME BPVC has always required that the welding qualifications shall be done under the full supervision and control of the qualifying organization. This roughly meant that the welding of the test coupon must be done under the express direction and control of the organization; while functions such as preparation of coupon, lab … Read more

Commonly Asked Questions On WPS With Toughness Requirement

This article covers only a couple of the questions that get commonly asked pertaining to qualification of WPS with toughness testing. Surely many more interesting issues can be explored around the subject. Do feel free to add your own insights in the comments section below. Using a PQR Qualified With Toughness For Joints Not Requiring … Read more

Welder Qualification For Corrosion Resistant Overlay

ASME Section IX considers that depositing corrosion resistant overlay requires a different skill than the skill required to weld on groove welds, fillet welds, build ups, etc. Thus, in QW 381, Section IX provides for the stipulations governing the welding performance qualifications for corrosion-resistant weld metal overlays. In this article, we shall discuss various aspects … Read more

Administrative Requirements for Welding Qualifications to Section IX

Qualifying your welders and procedure specifications in compliance to ASME Section IX requires knowing Section IX with some intimacy. It is important to know the expectations of the code properly, so that full compliance can be ensured. Section IX lays out both technical as well as administrative requirements. While most welding engineers go to great … Read more

How To Write A WPS

This article discusses a few things that a welding engineer must keep in mind while writing a WPS, in accordance with Section IX of ASME BPVC. WPS is short for Welding Procedure Specification. Being a welding engineer myself, I have touched upon a few things that do not find an obvious mention in the Section … Read more

Welding Procedure Qualification As Per ASME Section IX

In this article, I have discussed various aspects related to welding procedure qualification in accordance with ASME BPVC Section IX. These observations are borne out of almost a decade long personal experiences on this subject. What is a Welding Procedure Specification? Simply put, a WPS, short for Welding Procedure Specification, is a document (generally not … Read more

How to Address Groove Design and Root Spacing on a WPS

This article discusses about the subject of root spacing and groove design. How to address these variables on a WPS made in accordance with ASME Section IX? Let’s begin right away. Groove Design Groove design is a non-essential variable for most processes, except EBW. So a change from one groove type to another does not … Read more

ASME Section IX – Interesting Tidbits

Section IX of ASME BPVC is a qualification standard for welding procedures and welding operators. It is a very widely used standard today. In some places, it is a statutory requirement – that is, it is mandated by law. In other places, it is adopted by companies for welding qualifications. Sometimes it becomes compulsory by … Read more

Dissimilar Base Metal Thicknesses

This article discusses in some detail the subject of dissimilar base metal thicknesses for welding procedure qualification in the context of ASME Section IX. A couple of ASME Interpretations have been made use of to explain some points. What Constitutes Dissimilar Base Metal Thickness? QW 451 sets the limits for qualified base metal thicknesses for … Read more

Welding Qualifications: An Interplay

In my workplace, we do three kinds of welding qualifications: The first two welding qualifications are common to any shop engaged in manufacture of Coded components. The third one, the Lot Qualification, is not a requirement of Section IX. Its’ requirement, instead, comes from the construction code (in the case of my shop, Section III). … Read more

ASME Interpretations: Does ASME Make Mistakes?

ASME Interpretations have been extensively cited across a large number of articles on this website to establish a point. The Interpretations published every year bear the sanctity of the respective Committee’s consideration, and are as good as the Code itself. This article is a short commentary representing this blog’s views regarding various aspects of ASME … Read more

Practice Case 14 – Exemption to Supplementary Essential Variables

This article discusses a question which has become pertinent only after the 2021 edition of Section IX. The 2021 edition of Section IX exempts P-No. 8, P-Nos. 21-26, and P-Nos. 41-49 from several of the supplementary essential variables. In fact, this exemption is now applicable to all of the supplementary essential variables. However, what happens … Read more

Practice Case 13 – Multiple PQRs For A WPS

This article deals with an example of multiple PQRs used to support a single WPS, with a focus on the special exemption of QW 200.4 for root deposits. Consider the following questions asked in Interpretation IX-17-77. “Background: A combination GTAW and FCAW WPS is supported by two PQRs performed using the same base metals and … Read more

Practice Case 12 – Heat Input On A WPS

This article studies an example of two procedure qualifications with different heat inputs, qualified on different base metal thicknesses. How does one go about when applying these PQRs to a single production weld joint. How to reckon heat input on a WPS in such situation? Consider the following questions asked in Interpretation IX-92-87. “Background: Two … Read more

Practice Case 11 – Minimum Base Metal Thickness Qualified

This article explores the minimum base metal thickness qualified for production welding if the procedure has been qualified on base metals of dissimilar thickness. Consider the following questions asked in Interpretation IX-15-14. “Background: A SMAW procedure qualification test coupon consisting of two plates with the same P-Number but different Group numbers, and of different base … Read more

Practice Case 10 – Group Number In Welding

This article discusses a few examples showing change of Group Number in welding, which is a supplementary essential variable in ASME Section IX. How to judge applicability of a PQR for a production weld when only the Group number is different, while all other essential and supplementary essential variables are satisfied? The issue has been … Read more

Practice Case 9 – Welding Qualification For Tube-To-Tubesheet Welds

This article explores the question of using a WPS qualified on a groove weld for tube-to-tubesheet welding, while using a welder qualified on demonstration mock-ups of QW 193. And vice versa, using a welder qualified on a groove weld for tube-to-tube sheet welding, while using a WPS qualified in accordance with QW 193. The article … Read more

Practice Case 7 – Procedure Qualification On A Pipe

This article explores a few aspects around the concept of welding procedure qualification on a pipe test coupon. Is the full circumference of pipe necessary for qualifying the procedure? Does the answer change if we are talking about a welding performance qualification? Consider the following question asked in Interpretation IX-19-11. “Question: A groove weld procedure … Read more

Practice Case 6 – Backing For Welding Procedure Qualification

This article discusses this question: If a procedure qualification has been qualified with backing, can it be used only with backing? Can it be used for welding without backing as well? Is backing for welding procedure qualification an essential variable? Consider the following question asked in Interpretation IX-17-15. “Background: A PQR consists of a GTAW … Read more

Practice Case 4 – PQR With Dissimilar Thickness

This article discusses a couple of examples in which a PQR has been qualified with dissimilar thickness base metals. How should we use such PQRs? Please note that this discussion is contextual only with ASME Section IX. Please also note that this article is separate from the article ‘Practice Case 3 – WPS For Dissimilar … Read more

Practice Case 3 – WPS For Dissimilar Base Metal Thickness

This article discusses a few examples when the production weld comprises of dissimilar base metal thickness. What should the WPS for such production welds be like? How must the PQR for such welds look like? Consider the following problem asked in Interpretation IX-13-09. A WPS is qualified for a base metal thickness range of 13 … Read more

Practice Case 2 – Weld Thickness And Position In Welder Qualification

This article discusses an example of two different performance qualifications in a single coupon. Both the portions are welded by the same welder. The difference between the two portions is that of welding position: one portion is welded in 2G position, while the other in 4G. How are the qualified weld thickness and position to … Read more

Practice Case – 1: Deposited Weld Thickness For Welder Qualification

This article touches upon the the subject of qualified deposited weld thickness for a welder qualified in accordance with ASME Section IX. Consider the following problem asked in Interpretation IX-10-23. A welder was qualified on a groove weld test coupon of 10 mm thickness. The welder deposited 2.5 mm thickness of the groove using E6010 … Read more

Supplementary Essential Variables As Per ASME Section IX

This article addresses the subject of supplementary essential variables on a WPS, in accordance with ASME Section IX. Various supplementary essential variables, that appear under most processes under QW 250, have been discussed in some detail. At the end, a small portion is included to explain how to carry out requalification of a PQR when … Read more

Filler Metal On A WPS

This article some of the issues related to the subject of filler metal on a WPS. The entire discussion is done in the context of ASME Section IX, and might not be relevant to other codes. The article focuses special attention on use of unassigned filler metals on a WPS, and also rules regarding filler … Read more

A-Number On A WPS

This article discusses about the subject of A-Number on a WPS. The article begins with an introduction of A-number, then explains how to apply it vis-à-vis the rules of ASME Section IX. It goes on to explain various methods of determining A-number. Towards the end of the article, it explores a little the question of … Read more

WPS Qualification For Pressure Retaining Fillet Welds

This article lets you know about WPS qualification for fillet welds – pressure retaining as well as non-pressure retaining ones. At the end, a couple of paragraphs also address the subject of performance qualification for pressure retaining fillet welds. Procedure Qualification For Fillet Welds We know that, ordinarily, the WPS qualification for a fillet joint … Read more

Weld Reinforcement In Welder Qualification

This article addresses a couple of questions surrounding the subject of weld reinforcement in welder qualification. I have tried to explore the intent of Section IX on this. Should the weld reinforcement be removed once welding of the welding performance qualification coupon is over? Must it be removed? Is it permitted to remove it? Read … Read more

Weld Thickness For Welder Qualification

In this article I will discuss the subject of qualified weld thickness for welder qualification. This includes the maximum qualified weld thickness and minimum qualified weld thickness. A small section at the end also addresses the qualified base metal thickness for welder qualification, and qualified weld thickness for welding operators as well. Thickness Of Weld … Read more

With And Without Backing For Welder Qualification

Welding without backing takes greater skill on the part of welder. Which is why, Section IX has listed deletion of backing as an essential variable for welder qualification. This article will let you know about the various aspects of with and without backing for welder qualification. The latter half of the article gives some attention … Read more

Multiple Welder Qualifications Through Single Test Coupon

ASME Section IX permits covering multiple welder qualification through single test coupon. In this article, I will discuss various things that must be kept in mind when opting for qualifying multiple welding performance qualifications in a single coupon. A welder must qualify for each of the processes that he intends to use in production welding. … Read more

Welder Qualification Through Fillet Weld Test Coupon

ASME Section IX permits welding performance qualifications through groove weld coupons as well as fillet weld test coupons. It is for the welding engineer to decide which kind of coupon would be appropriate for his application. In this article we will discuss how to make this choice, and other aspects surrounding welder qualification through fillet … Read more

Retests In Welding Performance Qualification

ASME Section IX provides for immediate retests in welding performance qualification (for both welders and welding operators) if one or more tests do not meet the specified acceptance criteria. The provisions for immediate retesting using mechanical testing, volumetric NDE, and visual examination have been clearly defined in QW 321. This article does not seek to … Read more