Zinc (Zn)

 *Zinc ***is a medium low strength metal having a very low melting point. It is easy to machine, but coarse-grain zinc should be heated to approximately 180°F (82°C) to avoid the cleavage of crystals. It can be soldered or welded, if it is properly cleaned and the heat input closely controlled. Uses. Galvanizing metal is the … Read more

White Metal Die Castings

(a) General. These are usually made with alloys of aluminum, lead, magnesium, or tin. Except for those made of lead and tin, they are generally light in weight and white in color. (b) Appearance. The surface is much smoother than that produced by castings made in sand.( c) Fracture test. The fractured surface is white and somewhat granular. … Read more

Tin (Sn)

(a) General. Tin is a very soft, malleable, somewhat ductile, corrosion-resistant metal having low tensile strength and high crystalline structure. It is used in coating metals to prevent corrosion. (b) Uses. The major application of tin is in coating steel. It serves as the best container for preserving perishable focal. Tin, in the form of foil, is … Read more

Steel, Cast Steel

Steel a form of iron, contains less carbon than cast iron, but considerably more than wrought iron. The carbon content is from 0.03 to 1.7 percent. Uses Steel is used to make nails, rivets, gears, structural steel, roles, desks, hoods, fenders, chisels, hammers, etc. Capabilities Steel can be machined, welded, and forged, all to varying degrees, depending on the … Read more

Nickel (Ni)

Nickel is a hard, malleable, ductile metal. As an alloy, it will increase ductility, have no effect on grain size, lower the critical point for heat treatment, aids fatigue strength, and increase impact values in low-temperature operations. Both nickel and nickel alloys are machinable and are readily welded by gas and arc methods. Uses. Nickel is … Read more

Molybdenum (Mo)

Pure molybdenum has high tensile strength and is very resistant to heat. It is principally used as an alloying agent in steel to increase strength, hardenability, and resistance to heat.  Uses. Molybdenum is used mainly as an alloy. Heating elements, switches, contacts, thermocouples, welding electrodes, and cathode-ray tubes are made of molybdenum. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as … Read more

Manganese (Mn)

Pure manganese has a relatively high tensile strength but is very brittle. It is used as an alloying agent in steel to deoxidize and desulfurize the metal. In metals other than steel, percentages of 1 to 15 percent will increase the toughness and the hardenability of the metal involved. Uses. It is used mainly as an alloying agent in … Read more

Copper (Cu), Brass, Bronze

Copper is a reddish metal,  that is very ductile and malleable, and has high electrical and heat conductivity. It is used as a major element in hundreds of alloys. Commercially pure copper is not suitable for welding. Though it is very soft, it is very difficult to machine due to its high ductility. Beryllium copper contains … Read more

Cobalt (Co)

Cobalt is a hard, white metal similar to nickel in appearance, but has a slightly bluish cast. Uses. It is mainly used as an alloying element in permanent and soft magnetic materials, high-speed tool bits and cutters, high-temperature, creep-resisting alloys, and cemented carbide tools, bits, and cutters. It is also used in making insoluble paint pigments … Read more

High Yield Strength, Low Alloy Structural Steels

a. General. High yield strength, low alloy structural steels (constructional alloy steels) are special steels that are tempered to obtain extreme toughness and durability. The special alloys and general makeup of these steels require special treatment to obtain satisfactory weldments. These steels are special, low-carbon steels containing specific, small amounts of alloying elements. They are quenched … Read more