(a) General. These are usually made with alloys of aluminum, lead, magnesium, or tin. Except for those made of lead and tin, they are generally light in weight and white in color.

(b) Appearance. The surface is much smoother than that produced by castings made in sand. (c) Fracture test. Fractured surface is white and somewhat granular. (d) Spark test. No sparks given off in a spark test. (e) Torch test. Melting points are low, and the metal boils under the torch.