The use of welding machines require some basic safety consideration.
When electric generators powered by internal combustion engines are used inside buildings or in confined areas, the engine exhaust must be conducted to the outside atmosphere.
Check the welding equipment to make sure the electrode connections and the insulation on holders and cables are in good condition. All checking should be done with the machine off or unplugged. All serious trouble should be investigated by a trained electrician.
Motor-generator*** welding machines*** feature complete separation of the primary power and the welding circuit since the generator is mechanically connected to the electric rotor. A rotor-generator type arc welding machine must have a power ground on the machine. Metal frames and cases of motor generators must be grounded since the high voltage from the main line does come into the case. Stray current may cause a severe shock to the operator if he should contact the machine and a good ground.
In transformer and rectifier type welding machines, the metal frame and cases must be grounded to the earth. The work terminal of the welding machine should not be grounded to the earth.
Phases of a three-phase power line must be accurately identified when paralleling transformer welding machines to ensure that the machines are on the same phase and in phase with one another. To check, connect the work leads together and measure the voltage between the electrode holders of the two machines. This voltage should be practically zero. If it is double the normal open circuit voltage, it means that either the primary or secondary connections are reversed. If the voltage is approximately 1-1/2 times the normal open circuit voltage it means that the machines are connected to different phases of the three phase power line. Corrections must be made before welding begins.
When large weldments, like ships, buildings, or structural parts are involved, it is normal to have the work terminal of many welding machines connected to it. It is important that the machines be connected to the proper phase and have the same polarity. Check by measuring the voltage between the electrode holders of the different machines as mentioned above. The situation can also occur with respect to direct current power sources when they are connected to a common weldment. If one machine is connected for straight polarity and one for reverse polarity, the voltage between the electrode holders will be double the normal open circuit voltage. Precautions should be taken to see that all machines are of the same polarity when connected to a common weldment.
Do not operate the polarity switch while the machine is operating under welding current load. Consequent arcing at the switch will damage the contact surfaces and the flash may burn the person operating the switch.
Do not operate the rotary switch for current settings while the machine is operating under welding current load. Severe burning of the switch contact surfaces will result. Operate the rotary switch while the machine is idling.
Disconnect the welding machines from the power supply when they are left unattended.
The welding electrode holders must be connected to machines with flexible cables for welding application. Use only insulated electrode holders and cables. There can be no splices in the electrode cable within 10 feet (3 meters) of the electrode holder. Splices, if used in work or electrode leads, must be insulated. Wear dry protective covering on hands and body.
Partially used electrodes should be removed from the holders when not in use. A place will be provided to hang up or lay down the holder where it will not come in contact with persons or conducting objects.
The work clamp must be securely attached to the work before the start of the welding operation.
Locate welding machines where they have adequate ventilation and ventilation ports are not obstructed.