Welding Aluminum

Aluminum is a lightweight, soft, low-strength metal that can easily be cast, forged, machined, formed, and welded. Unless alloyed with specific elements, it is suitable only in low-temperature applications. Aluminum is light gray to silver in color, very bright when polished, and dull when oxidized. A fracture in aluminum sections shows a smooth, bright structure. … Read more

Chromium (Cr)

Chromium is an alloying agent used in steel, cast iron, and nonferrous alloys of nickel, copper, aluminum, and cobalt. It is hard, brittle, corrosion-resistant, can be welded, machined, forged, and is widely used in electroplating. Chromium is not resistant to hydrochloric acid and cannot be used in its pure state because of its difficulty to work. Uses. … Read more

Medium Carbon Steels

Welding Medium Carbon Steels Medium carbon steels are non-alloy steels that contain from 0.30 to 0.55 percent carbon. These steels may be heat-treated after fabrication and used for general machining and forging of parts that require surface hardness and strength. They are manufactured in bar form and in the cold-rolled or the normalized and annealed condition. … Read more

Wrought Iron

Wrought iron is almost pure iron. It is made from pig iron in a puddling furnace and has a carbon content of less than 0.08 percent. Carbon and other elements present in pig iron are taken out, leaving almost pure iron. In the process of manufacture, some slag is mixed with iron to form a … Read more

Welding Nickel and Monel

*Nickel *is a hard, malleable, ductile metal. Nickel and its alloys are commonly used when corrosion resistance is required. Nickel and nickel alloys such as Monel can, in general, be welded by metal-arc and gas welding methods. Some nickel alloys are more difficult to weld due to different compositions. The operator should make trial welds with … Read more

Standard Metal Designations

Standard Designation System For Steel The numerical index system for the classification of metals and their alloys has been generally adopted by the industry for use on drawings and specifications. In this system, the class to which the metal belongs, the predominant alloying agent, and the average carbon content percentage are given. a. Numbers are … Read more

Cast Iron, Steel, Wrought Iron

All forms of cast iron, steel, and wrought iron consist of a mixture of iron, carbon, and other elements in small amounts. Whether the metal is cast iron or steel depends entirely upon the amount of carbon in it. Table 7-7 shows this principle. The Bureau of Standards of the United States Department of Commerce has a color code for making steel … Read more

Cast Iron (Gray, White, and Malleable)

Cast Iron Cast iron is a man-made alloy of iron, carbon, and silicon. A portion of the carbon exists as free carbon or graphite. Total carbon content is between 1.7 and 4.5 percent. Uses. Cast iron is used for water pipes, machine tool castings, transmission housing, engine blocks, pistons, stove castings, etc. Capabilities. Cast iron may be brazed … Read more

Welding Titanium

(1) Titanium is a soft, silvery-white, medium-strength metal with very good corrosion resistance. It has a high strength to weight ratio, and its tensile strength increases as the temperature decreases. Titanium has low impact and creep strengths. It has seizing tendencies at temperatures above 800°F (427°C). (2) Titanium has a high affinity for oxygen and … Read more

Welding Cast Iron

Welding Cast Iron, Cast Steel: Procedures Welding Gray Cast Iron Edge preparation. The edges of the joint should be chipped out or ground to form a 60-degree angle or bevel. The V should extend to approximately 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) from the bottom of the crack. A small hole should be drilled at each end … Read more