Weldments must be designed and built to perform adequately in service. The risk of failure of a weldment is relatively small, but failure can occur in structures such as bridges, pressure vessels, storage tanks, ships, and penstocks. Welding has sometimes been blamed for the failure of large engineering structures, but it should be noted that failures have occurred in riveted and bolted structures and in castings, forgings, hot rolled plate and shapes, as well as other types of construction. Failures of these types of structures occurred before welding was widely used and still occur in unwelded structures today. However, it is still important to make weldments and welded structures as safe against premature failure of any type as possible. There are four specific types of failures, including brittle fracture, fatigue fracture, lamellar tearing, and stress corrosion cracking.
a. Brittle Fracture. Fracture can be classified into two general categories, ductile and brittle.
(1) Ductile fracture occurs by deformation of the crystals and slip relative to each other. There is a definite stretching or yielding and a reduction of cross-sectional area at the fracture (fig. 6-55).
(2) Brittle fracture occurs by cleavage across individual crystals. The fracture exposes the granular structure, and there is little or no stretching or yielding. There is no reduction of area at the fracture (fig. 6-56).
(3) It is possible that a broken surface will display both ductile and brittle fracture over different areas of the surface. This means that the fracture which propagated across the section changed its mode of fracture.(4) There are four factors that should be reviewed when analyzing a fractured surface. They are growth marking, fracture mode, fracture surface texture and appearance, and amount of yielding or plastic deformation at the fracture surface.
(5) Growth markings are one way to identify the type of failure. Fatigue failures are characterized by a fine texture surface with distinct markings produced by erratic growth of the crack as it progresses. The chevron or herringbone pattern occurs with brittle or impact failures. The apex of the chevron appearing on the fractured surface always points toward the origin of the fracture and is an indicator of the direction of crack propagation.
(6) Fracture mode is the second factor. Ductile fractures have a shear mode of crystalline failure. The surface texture is silky or fibrous in appearance. Ductile fractures often appear to have failed in shear as evidenced by all parts of the fracture surface assuming an angle of approximately 45 degrees with respect to the axis of the load stress.
(7) The third factor is fracture surface and texture. Brittle or cleavage fractures have either a granular or a crystalline appearance. Brittle fractures usually have a point of origin. The chevron pattern will help locate this point.
(8) An indication of the amount of plastic deformation is the necking down of the surface. There is little or no deformation for a brittle fracture, and usually a considerable necked down area in the case of a ductile fracture.
(9) One characteristic of brittle fracture is that the steel breaks quickly and without warning. The fractures increase at very high speeds, and the steels fracture at stresses below the normal yield strength for steel. Mild steels, which show a normal degree of ductility when tested in tension as a normal test bar, may fail in a brittle manner. In fact, mild steel may exhibit good toughness characteristics at roan temperature. Brittle fracture is therefore more similar to the fracture of glass than fracture of normal ductile materials. A combination of conditions must be present at the same time for brittle fracture to occur. Some of these factors can be eliminated and thus reduce the possibility of brittle fracture. The following conditions must be present for brittle fracture to occur: low temperature, a notch or defect, a relatively high rate of loading, and triaxial stresses normally due to thickness of residual stresses. The microstructure of the metal also has an effect.
(10) Temperature is an important factor which must be considered in conjunction with microstructure of the material and the presence of a notch. Impact testing of steels using a standard notched bar specimen at different temperatures shows a transition from a ductile type failure to a brittle type failure based on a lowered temperature, which is known as the transition temperature.