a. General. A cast iron is an alloy of iron, carbon, and silicon, in which the amount of carbon is usually more than 1.7 percent and less than 4.5 percent.
(1) The most widely used type of cast iron is known as gray iron. Gray iron has a variety of compositions, but is usually such that it is primarily perlite with many graphite flakes dispersed throughout.
(2) There are also alloy cast irons which contain small amounts of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, or other elements added to provide specific properties.
(3) Another alloy iron is austenitic cast iron, which is modified by additions of nickel and other elements to reduce the transformation temperature so that the structure is austenitic at room or normal temperatures. Austenitic cast irons have a high degree of corrosion resistance.
(4) In white cast iron, almost all the carbon is in the combined form. This provides a cast iron with higher hardness, which is used for abrasion resistance.
(5) Malleable cast iron is made by giving white cast iron a special annealing heat treatment to change the structure of the carbon in the iron. The structure is changed to perlitic or ferritic, which increases its ductility.
(6) Nodular iron and ductile cast iron are made by the addition of magnesium or aluminum which will either tie up the carbon in a combined state or will give the free carbon a spherical or nodular shape, rather than the normal flake shape in gray cast iron. This structure provides a greater degree of ductility or malleability of the casting.
(7) Cast irons are widely used in agricultural equipment; on machine tools as bases, brackets, and covers; for pipe fittings and cast iron pipe; and for automobile engine blocks, heads, manifolds, and water preps. Cast iron is rarely used in structural work except for compression members. It is widely used in construction machinery for counterweights and in other applications for which weight is required.
b. Gray cast iron has low ductility and therefore will not expand or stretch to any considerable extent before breaking or cracking. Because of this characteristic, preheating is necessary when cast iron is welded by the oxyacetylene welding process. It can, however, be welded with the metal-arc process without preheating if the welding heat is carefully controlled. This can be accomplished by welding only short lengths of the joint at a time and allowing these sections to cool. By this procedure, the heat of welding is confined to a small area, and the danger of cracking the casting is eliminated. Large castings with complicated sections, such as motor blocks, can be welded without dismantling or preheating. Special electrodes designed for this purpose are usually desirable. Ductile cast irons, such as malleable iron, ductile iron, and nodular iron, can be successfully welded. For best results, these types of cast irons should be welded in the annealed condition.c. Welding is used to salvage new iron castings, to repair castings that have failed in service, and to join castings to each other or to steel parts in manufacturing operations. Table 7-19 shows the welding processes that can be used for welding cast, malleable, and nodular irons. The selection of the welding process and the welding filler metals depends on the type of weld properties desired and the service life that is expected. For example, when using the shielded metal arc welding process, different types of filler metal can be used. The filler metal will have an effect on the color match of the weld compared to the base material. The color match can be a determining factor, specifically in the salvage or repair of castings, where a difference of color would not be acceptable.
fig. 7-10). In this process, the fracture is removed by grinding a V groove. Holes are drilled and tapped at an angle on each side of the groove, and studs are screwed into these holes for a distance equal to the diameter of the studs, with the upper ends projecting approximately 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) above the cast iron surface. The studs should be seal welded in place by one or two beads around each stud, and then tied together by weld metal beads. Welds should be made in short lengths, and each length peened while hot to prevent high stresses or cracking upon cooling. Each bead should be allowed to cool and be thoroughly cleaned before additional metal is deposited. If the studding method cannot be applied, the edges of the joint should be chipped out or machined with a round-nosed tool to form a U groove into which the weld metal should be deposited.
(9) Other welding processes can be used for cast iron. Thermit welding has been used for repairing certain types of cast iron machine tool parts. Soldering can be used for joining cast iron, and is sometimes used for repairing small defects in small castings. Flash welding can also be used for welding cast iron.